The earliest glass maker in the world was the ancient Egyptians. The appearance and use of glass has been in human life for more than 4,000 years. From the remains of Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt 4,000 years ago, small glass beads have been unearthed. [3-4]
In the 12th century, commercial glass appeared and began to become an industrial material. In the 18th century, in order to meet the needs of telescopes, optical glass was produced. In 1874, Belgium first produced flat glass. In 1906, the United States made the flat glass lead-in machine. Since then, with the industrialization and scale of glass production, glass with various uses and various properties has been published. In modern times, glass has become an important material in daily life, production and science and technology.
More than 3000 years ago, a European Phoenician merchant ship, loaded with crystalline mineral "natural soda", sailed on the Belus River along the Mediterranean coast. Due to the ebb and flow of the sea, the merchant ship ran aground, so the crew climbed onto the beach. Some crew members also brought the cauldron, brought firewood, and used a few pieces of "natural soda" as a support for the cauldron to cook on the beach.
After the crew finished their meal, the tide began to rise. As they were about to tidy up and continue sailing, someone suddenly shouted, "Come and see, there is something bright and shiny on the sand below the pot!"
The crew brought these glittering things to the ship and studied them carefully. They found that some of these shiny crystals had some quartz sand and melted natural soda. It turned out that these glittering things were the natural soda used as a bracket for the pot when they were cooking. Under the action of the flame, they produced a chemical reaction with the quartz sand on the beach. This is the earliest glass. Later, the Phoenicians combined quartz sand and natural soda, and then melted it in a special furnace to make glass balls, which made the Phoenicians make a fortune.
Around the 4th century, the ancient Romans began to apply glass to doors and windows. By 1291, the glass manufacturing technology in Italy had been very developed.
In this way, Italian glass craftsmen were sent to an isolated island to produce glass, they were not allowed to leave this island during their lifetime.
In 1688, a man named Naf invented the process of making large pieces of glass, and since then, glass has become an ordinary object.
Glass: This is Sanskrit voice, not what is called glass today. Also published in Puli, the new translations are Pozhijia, Suozhizhijia, Saipuozhijia, etc., which is equivalent to the water essence (crystal) of this side.
The Chinese translation is crystal, with four colors of purple, white, red and blue.
"Xuan Ying Yin Yi" said: "Poli, the name of the Western National Treasure, this Yunshui jade, or Yun Baizhu."
"The Great Comment" cloud: "This treasure came out of the mountain grotto, and it has turned into a pearl of Puri in thousands of years."
"Hui Yuan Yin Yi" cloud this treasure: "The shape is like water essence, the light is more subtle than the water essence, there are four colors of yellow, blue, purple and white.
Li Shizhen's "Compendium of Materia Medica" in the Ming Dynasty: "Glass, this book is Pali". The name of the country of Pali. It is as bright as water, and as firm as jade, hence the name water jade. Same name as Shui Jing.
For hundreds of years, people have always believed that glass is green and cannot be changed. Later, it was found that the green color came from a small amount of iron in the raw material, and the compound of divalent iron made the glass green. After the addition of manganese dioxide, the original ferrous iron turns into ferric iron and appears yellow, while the tetravalent manganese is reduced to ferric manganese and appears purple. Optically, yellow and purple can complement each other to a certain extent, and when mixed together to become white light, the glass will not be colored. However, after several years, the trivalent manganese continues to be oxidized by the air, and the yellow color will gradually increase, so the window glass of those old houses will be slightly yellowish.
General glass is an amorphous solid with irregular structure (microscopically, glass is also a liquid). Its molecules do not have a long-range order in space like crystals, but have a short-range sequence. Glass maintains a specific shape like a solid and does not flow with gravity like a liquid.